Plumbing code is a code that provides regulations for the design, installation and inspection of building plumbing and sanitary systems. In the U.S., jurisdictions enact their own codes, some of which are based upon model plumbing codes.1 The most widely adopted plumbing code in the United States is the International Plumbing Code published by the International Code Council (ICC). This code is also used as the basis for the plumbing code of some other countries. Another model plumbing code published in the United States is the Uniform Plumbing Code published by IAPMO.
Repair work on the hydraulic school
A very important project carried out in built school is equipping it with a functioning network plumbing. Responsibility for the good execution of the plan created previously borne by the administration building, and then selected by the administrative authorities, the director of the school. It should also ensure that the school building was carried out a review of the state of water and sanitation, especially during the holiday season and, if necessary, during the school year. Performance of plumbing repairs in the school can deal with an emergency plumber or hydraulic depending on the type of failure. Therefore, to carry out such repairs may involve the need to close only one of the toilets or the entire school building.
Boilers and safety issue
To define and secure boilers safely, some professional specialized organizations such as the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) develop standards and regulation codes. For instance, the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code is a standard providing a wide range of rules and directives to ensure compliance of the boilers and other pressure vessels with safety, security and design standards.5
Historically, boilers were a source of many serious injuries and property destruction due to poorly understood engineering principles. Thin and brittle metal shells can rupture, while poorly welded or riveted seams could open up, leading to a violent eruption of the pressurized steam. When water is converted to steam it expands to over 1,000 times its original volume and travels down steam pipes at over 100 kilometres per hour. Because of this, steam is a great way of moving energy and heat around a site from a central boiler house to where it is needed, but without the right boiler feed water treatment, a steam-raising plant will suffer from scale formation and corrosion. At best, this increases energy costs and can lead to poor quality steam, reduced efficiency, shorter plant life and unreliable operation. At worst, it can lead to catastrophic failure and loss of life. Collapsed or dislodged boiler tubes can also spray scalding-hot steam and smoke out of the air intake and firing chute, injuring the firemen who load the coal into the fire chamber. Extremely large boilers providing hundreds of horsepower to operate factories can potentially demolish entire buildings. 6
A boiler that has a loss of feed water and is permitted to boil dry can be extremely dangerous. If feed water is then sent into the empty boiler, the small cascade of incoming water instantly boils on contact with the superheated metal shell and leads to a violent explosion that cannot be controlled even by safety steam valves. Draining of the boiler can also happen if a leak occurs in the steam supply lines that is larger than the make-up water supply could replace. The Hartford Loop was invented in 1919 by the Hartford Steam Boiler and Insurance Company as a method to help prevent this condition from occurring, and thereby reduce their insurance claims.